大家都知道，托福写作考试中独立作文题目有许多都是非常抽象的话题，如：幸福感（happiness），成功（success），金钱（money），社会地位（social status），公共认同（public recognition），乐观精神（optimism），计划和整理（plan and organize），创新（creativity），充满野心的梦想和实际的目标（ambitious dreams and realistic goals），美丽的事物（beautiful things）等等。很多考生遇到此类话题就没有了头绪，因为对他们来说这些东西非常抽象，看不见，摸不着，只是一个概念，因此文章就不知道如何下手，也不知道如何确立观点，写作的时候也会遇到空泛的表达，词汇单一，枯燥，此时考生们很想知道考官是不是有偏向性的观点，并且如何使用语言来表述自己的观点。下面笔者就给大家通过老外的范文分析一下对于抽象类话题如何有效的去破解，写作。
1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order tosucceed, we should be more like others than be different from others.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2008.10.12（翻译：为了获得成功，我们是和别人不一样还是和别人一样。）
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People holdingdifferent views cannot achieve successas a team.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2010.2.13（翻译：持有不同观点的人作为一组不能获得成功。）
3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It’s impossibleto succeed if one cannot acceptcriticism in teamwork.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2012（翻译：如果一个人在团队中不能接受别人的批评就不可能成功。）
4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more likelyfor people with more skills tosucceed.（People who try to acquire more than one skills aremore likely to become successful than people who just focus on one skill.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2011.8.27（翻译：有更多技能的人容易获得成功。）
5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is much easierfor people to achieve success withouttheir family members help now than in the past.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2011.10.29（翻译：没有家人的帮助是前提，现在比过去更容易获得成功。）
6. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Communication skill is the mostimportant characteristic of successful leadership.（抽象类，领导才能因素） 2011.11.20（翻译：沟通技能是成功领导的最重要的标志。）
7. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order tosucceed in doing a new job, the ability to adaptoneself to the new environment is more important than the excellent knowledge of this job.（翻译：在新工作岗位上的成功来源于适应新环境还是拥有更好的知识。）
1. teamwork 团队
You are the sum of the fivepeople you spend the most time with. My mom always used say, “Tell me who yourfriends are and I’ll tell you who you are.” And she was right on—because millionaires surround themselveswith other millionaires.
If we really are the sum of the people we surround ourselves with, it’s soimportant to surround yourself with the right ones. Successful people arealways networking with each other atevents, conferences and mastermind groups.
这个点论证了我们托福写作成功的第一个要素：团队对于成功的重要性，聪明的人不是一个人聪明，而是周围一个团队都聪明最终成果才会更远大，这样他们才能分享更好的资源，人脉，思想和创新，一个人的力量是远远不及众人合起来的力量的。此外这一段中还使用了一些非常好用的短语和句子，如：You are the sum of the five people you spend themost time with. 这个句子传达的意思是the outcome of team work is far more reaching thanthe outcome of personal efforts. 但是显然这个句子要地道很多。because millionaires surround themselves with other millionaires这个句子告诉我们重复并不算是一种累赘，而是起着一种更好的强调作用。Successful people are always networking with eachother at events, conferences and mastermind groups. “network”这个词名转动更加出彩。
2. Like tolearn. 学无止境
Every entrepreneur andsuccessful person I’ve met is a lifelonglearner. They understand the importance of constantly improving, constantlygrowing.
Driven people self-educate through books, audiotapes, online courses, seminars…. They’re determined to alwayslearn new skills, to keep developing as a person—to never become stagnant. They never stop.
You have a desire to improve
Not everyone has a lot of ambition. They might be held back by fears that they can’t effectively deal with; they mightnot be creative enough or they might be lazy and used to settling for less if it means they don’t have to work too hard.
Then there are those that have aburning desire to constantly improve, learn new things, pick up newskills and sacrifice some fun and enjoyment now, so that they can behappier in the future.
The latter group is the one that keeps improving year after year, gettingthings done one step at a time.
这一小段回答了托福写作成功话题的第二个问题，需要更多的技能野心和梦想。作为一个优秀的创业者，不断学习新的技能提升自己，才不会被淘汰，大部分的学习必须靠自己完成，可以通过书本，有声读物影像，在线课程，以及研讨会，这里面许多词使用得也是非常漂亮的，比如说“entrepreneur（企业家）”, “lifelong（终生）”, “audiotapes, online courses, seminars（有声书，在线课程，研讨会）”, “stagnant（停滞不前）”, “hold back（阻挡）”, “settle for less（追求少）”, “burning desire（强烈追求）”。
3. beingdifferent makes different 与众不同，获得成功
You aren’t afraid to express yourself: being yourself and being creative.
Many people don’t feel comfortable showing their feelings to the world – revealing their true self to the world justmakes them feel too vulnerable.
However, if we look at some of the most successful and widely recognizedmodern artists, we see that they aren’t afraid to follow their vision, and they keep creatively expressing theirinner self through their work. Film directors like Wes Anderson are consideredauteurs because of their unique artisticstyle. In the same vein, the billionaire entrepreneurs of today have alwaysbeen outspoken about their vision,even if it went against the grain.
这一段很清晰地表达出了托福写作关于成功的一个品质：要做自己，不一定要和别人一样，要创新，要勇于说出自己的想法，远见。不要觉得自己不一样就把自己封闭起来，太害怕太脆弱而不敢展现自己（revealing their true self to the world just makesthem feel too vulnerable），其中还举了两个例子，一个是当代画家，另一个是电影导演。其中语言值得学习的是：vision（远见）, unique（独一无二）, in the same vein（相似的是，用于类比）, outspoken（过去分词作形容词用）, it goes against the grain（与大众观点不一样）。
4. You don’texpect others to do things for you 靠自己
There are men and women out there who simply can’t get their act together, so they sit around waiting for the world to sort out their problems. Theywill call on their friends, familyand even coworkers for support way toooften, and they always complain about the myriad of trivial problems that keep them from reaching theirgoals.
On the other hand, truly successful people like to take things into their own hands, and they take responsibility for their own actions or inaction.
对于要不要寻求家长朋友的帮助才能获得成功这个问题老外给出了不同的答案，他们认为对于成功的方法最好不要太依赖父母，家人，朋友和同事，可以寻求建议然后依靠自己奋斗并且承担责任，但是不要自己无法做主完全依赖他人。其中使用的一些短语如：”get one’s act together（振作起来）”, “sit around waiting for the world to sort outtheir problems（坐在那里等待世界帮他们解决问题）”, ”call on（请求）”, “way too often（太经常）”, “myriad（无数）”, “take things into their own hands（自己解决处理）”, “take responsibility for their own actions orinaction（对自己的作为和不作为负责任）”
5. You seefailure as a teaching tool and source of motivation 承认错误作为动力
The problem most people fall into is that they allow themselves to beeasily defeated. Of course, we all screwup from time to time, and even fail miserably when attempting new things,but that’s no reason to start shouting obscenitieswhile waving your fist at the skyand then give up all hope.
Those who use failure to fueltheir desire to become better, and manageto learn from all the mistakes they make along the way, these are thepeople who go on to achieve greatness.
这一小段对于托福写作成功话题的勇于承认错误，问题，并且失败之后不气馁，从失败中总结经验教训，继续努力非常适用。其中一些地道有用的词组如：“Of course, we all screw up from time to time, andeven fail miserably（当然我们都会时不时的犯错，甚至经历痛苦的失败）”中的时不时用了“from time to time”, 犯错“screw up”,“but that’s no reason to start shouting obscenities while waving your fist atthe sky and then give up all hope（没有理由开始谩骂发并且挥舞着拳头丢掉所希望）”. 在此，老外使用了非常形象的表达，表现出了失败和犯了错误之后的沮丧行为，比如使用了“shouting obscenities”, “waving your fist at thesky”等。此外，“fuel their desire to become better（加速fuel他们变得更好的欲望）”, “ manage to learn from all the mistakes they make along the way（成功的manage to do... 从他们一路上犯的错误中学习到东西）”, “achieve greatness（成就更多）”.
6. adapt into anew environment 适应环境
Have you everbeen in a situation where your family decides to move to another city and you were forced to changeschools? Changing to a new job can have some the same feelings. If you aregoing to have a new position and you don't know the kind of boss or colleaguesyou might face or the kind of environment you might have to work in. Somecompanies may interview candidates to briefthem about their corporate conduct, their policies and their workenvironment for employees. But, you will not have the ability to have a deepunderstanding of the whole pictureuntil you are actually put in thatcompany. The hardest thing when you are going to get a new job is the stressyou might suffer when a result of finding anew support system within the new company while attempting to understandfully the new rules and regulations.
这一段解释了我们大家都有可能遇到这种需要适应新环境的情况，比如说搬家，进入新的公司等，其中一些地道的词汇如：“brief（形容词作动词意思为简单介绍，也可以使用名词短语如：give a briefing to…）”, “thewhole picture（全景，往往指代比较抽象的环境，在这里指的是公司的全部情况）”, “put in（步入，本意为放进）”。
It is very important to remember that it takes time to adjust to your new surroundings. The time span depends mostly on the people who comprise the organization; they might actually help you get accustomed to the new environmentor may try to make it hard for you to cope. Here are a number of helpful tipsto help you adapt to your new environment.
这一段强调了需要适应新环境的重要性。其中“adjust to…调整到”, “new surroundings新环境”, “time span时间跨度”, “comprise组成”, “get accustomed to习惯做某事”都是非常好用的短语。
Prepare Yourself for Your First Day（为第一天准备好自己）
Listen and Observe（学会倾听和察言观色）
Stay Away from Gossip（远离闲聊八卦）
Concentrate on Your Work（关注你的工作）
A great way to adapt to your new environment is by doing what you do best; Yourcolleagues will come to respect and admire you when they acknowledge that youare a well experienced, skillful person, they may even come to you for help insome areas where you are more knowledgeable than they are.
Making friends might not always be easy; it actually depends on the cultureof the organization and on your own personality. If you have a shy personality,then you need to sharpen your peopleskills to actually get along. Be friendly, smile as much as you can evento people who you don't know and initiate discussions about interesting topics.If you find resistance then stop trying too hard. Give it a break and mindyour own business until your colleagues approach you.
这段把如何与别人沟通讲解得比较详细，还举了细节的例子，如“a shy personality”的人如何与别人相处，如何做到自然沟通，不是刻意与别人交流等等，这些都是成功的素质。
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The main purpose for people who have jobs is for money rather than socialstatus.（抽象类，钱与地位） 2012.5.26（翻译：人们工作的主要目的是为了钱，而不是为了社会地位）
一般指的是external and momentary pleasure (tasty food, warm baths, etc.)
People with enough money to make ends meet are happier than people who arepoor, but beyond that more money doesn’t make much difference.
但是关于社会地位（social status），在中国孩子的心中主要指的是很高的地位，如名人，大boss, 政客等等，但其实老外的定义一般分为两种，一种其实就是指比较普通的社会中的角色，也就是社会地位。
Status refers to the relative rank that an individual holds; this includes attendantrights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honor orprestige. Status has two different types that come along with it: achieved,and ascribed. The word status refers to social stratification on a verticalscale.
It's more than just something you get or don't get, have or don't have.Lots of people don't see it that way, though; they tend to think of socialstatus as simply a dividing line between the people who are "in" andthe people who are "out."
People in Possession of Status:
• "Being well-known socially is such a headache. So many people resentyou and try to take from you or backstab you. I almost wish I was an unknownsometimes."
• "I need to maintain my status. I must make sure that no one impugnsmy honor and everyone respects me and no one gains in status over me, meanwhileI need to be surpassing those above me. I've got to make it to the top."
Here are the benefits of social status you'll want to maximize:
• It allows you to more easily get what you want in social situations
• It allows you to make friends and build alliances with a greater numberof driven, successful, high quality individuals than you'd otherwise be able to
• It allows you to retain the attraction and loyalty of women in difficultsituations – even when not present.